Aim: To give young people some basic skills as an introduction to Emergency Aid. Introduction: Remember that this is not a qualification but an introduction to Emergency Aid. There are numerous organisations that could provide courses and qualifications in First Aid, as well as help in leading a session. Why not check out the following websites for advice and training courses: • http://www.sja.org.uk • http://www.redcrossfirstaidtraining.co.uk • http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/first_aid_action The person leading this session should be qualified to do so. Taken from the BB Company Section Discoverer Pro Pack, Skills, Life Skills L1
• Resuscitation dummies
• Antiseptic wipes
• Adult Basic Life Support template
Activity 1 Introduction to First Aid
Aim: To introduce to the group the basic aims of First Aid.
• Get The group, as individuals, to write out what they think are the aims of First Aid. Get them to share their responses with the rest of the group. Tell them that the following are probably the most basic aims of First Aid:
— To preserve life including your own.
— Limit the effect of the condition — make sure that the casualty doesn’t get worse.
— Promote the casualty’s recovery.
• In small groups get the young people to role play an accident. Tell them to go through what they would do if they found themselves in a situation where First Aid could be required.
• Take the group through the different stages involved in managing an accident that the groups should highlight in their role plays:
1. Assess the scene of the accident Ensure rest of group that are not involved, are safe. Ensure you are safe to enter scene.
2. Make the area safe Protect yourself and others. Move objects or obstructions. Switch off electricity. Ensure no moving vehicles — stop traffic.
3. Give emergency aid Make sure you know exactly how many casualties you have. Prioritise on treatment — Breathing, Bleeding, Bums, Broken Bones.
4. Get help Call emergency services if necessary. Call for other agencies — coast guard, mountain rescue, water, gas, etc.
5. Aftermath Record the details in the accident book and tell the person in charge. Replenish first aid box. Tell relatives.
Be aware of the effects on other members of staff, even some time after the event. DON’T discuss the accident with the press or
name the casualties. DON’T discuss legal responsibilities or fault
• In pairs get the young people to role play a 999 call. Tell the young people:
— If you need help quickly, you should ring 999. These calls are free.
— Lift the telephone and press 999. You will hear a voice asking...
Which emergency service do you require?’
Ask for POLICE or AMBULANCE or FIRE BRIGADE.
— You will then wait a short time whilst the operator puts you through and then you will be asked some questions.
What is the number of the telephone you are using?
What is your name?
What emergency have you seen?
— Don’t panic, just answer the questions as clearly as you can.
— Don’t speak too fast.
— Try to provide as much information as possible about The casualty and the situation.
Activity 2 - Resuscitation
Aim: To teach the group basic resuscitation techniques
A casualty will need to be resuscitated if they are not breathing normally. Remember that if a person needs resuscitating they are, to all intents and purposes, dead so you cant make them worse. In some cases however, but not all, you can restore life.
Resuscitation seeks to restore function to the circulatory and respiratory systems when they have stopped.
• Get the group to list the most common reasons why this might be required:
— Heart attack
— Electric shock i r
— Head injury
— Poisoning, including drugs In
— Blood loss leading to shock
• Tell the group that when practising CPR it is important to do so at working speed and keep a sense of urgency.
• Give out resuscitation dummies and work through the process using the "Adult Basic Life Support" hand-out.
• Check for danger — assess the danger that is faced by yourself, the casualty, and other people around. Don’t become another casualty! If it’s too dangerous to do anything, then call the police.
• Check for a response — Announce your presence, talk to them in their ear, and gently shake their shoulders. Look for a response.
• Check the mouth for anything that may block the airway.
• Open the airway by tilting the head and lifting the chin.
• Check for NORMAL breathing for up to 10 seconds. Look for chest movement, listen for breath at the mouth and feel for air on your cheek.
Giving Chest Compressions:
• Place the heel of one hand in the centre of the chest and place the heel of the other hand on top and interlock the fingers. Lift them to ensure no pressure is applied to the casualty’s ribs and do not apply any pressure over the upper abdomen or bottom tip of the sternum.
• Position yourself vertically above the casualty chest and with your arms straight, press down on the sternum to depress it between 4-5cm.
• Release the pressure, without losing contact between the hand and sternum, then repeat it at a rate of 100 times a minute.
Combining Chest Compressions with Rescue Breaths:
• After 30 compressions open the airway by tilting the head and lifting the chin.
• Pinch the soft part of the nose closed. Allow the casualty’s mouth to open but maintain the chin lift.
• Take a breath and place your lips around the casualty’s mouth making sure there is a good seal.
• Blow steadily into their mouth and watch for their chest to rise. Take about one second to make their chest rise as in normal breathing.
• Maintaining head tilt and chin lift, take your mouth away from the victim and watch for their chest to fail as air comes out.
• Take another breath and blow into the victim’s mouth once more. Without delay return to the correct position to give a further 30 chest compressions. Continue working at a ratio of 30 compressions to two breaths.
• Stop to recheck the victim only if they start breathing normally. Otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation.
Give out the Adult Basic Life Support’ template cut out into each stage. In groups get the young people to rearrange the pieces into the correct order. Then get them to practise their resuscitation techniques as a pair on the dummies. Go around and check their techniques.
Activity 3 - Recovery Position
Aim: To teach to the group how to put a casualty into the recovery position.
Placing the Casualty in the Recovery Position:
• Split the group into pairs and explain the Recovery Position. As you go through the instructions get the pairs to demonstrate the position on each other. Get one of the pair to be the casualty and the other to administer the First Aid.
• Explain that it can be dangerous to leave an unconscious casualty laid on their back. The tongue could close off the airway. If the casualty suddenly vomits, ft could cause air obstruction and the vomit may be inhaled. Similarly saliva could drain to the back of the throat and be inhaled.
• The Recovery Position seeks to alleviate these potential problems. There are three specific criteria which should be observed:
— The position is as near true lateral position as possible with the head dependent to allow free drainage of fluid.
— The position should be stable.
— No pressure on the chest to impair breathing.
• To turn a casualty into the recovery position:
— Remove the casualty’s spectacles.
— Kneel next to the casualty and make sure both legs are straight.
— Place the arm nearest to you at right angles to the body, elbow bent, palm up.
— Reach across the casualty, lift up their hand (palm-to-palm) and gently place the back of their hand against the side of their face.
— Keeping this hand in position lift above the far knee with the other hand. The bent leg acts as a lever to roll the casualty.
— Supporting the head with one hand, gently pull the knee towards you to turn the casualty.
— Adjust the upper leg so the hip and knee are bent at approximately right angles. This will stop the casualty rolling over onto their front.
— Gently remove your hand and allow the casualty’s head to on the back of their hand. Tilt the head back to ensure the airway remains open and recheck breathing. Ensure secretions can drain out of the mouth.
— Check the circulation in the arm which passes under the casualty’s body by feeling for a pulse at the wrist. If it is absent reposition the casualty.
• Go through the instructions again with the pairs swapping around.
• Now allow the pairs to put each other in the correct position with minimal help.
For full details and diagrams see the BB Company Section Discoverer Pro Pack, Skills, Life Skills L1