First aid instruction on dealing with asthma and head injuries
First Aid Asthma [15 mins]
A long term condition that causes narrowing of the airways making it difficult to breath in and out normally. Symptoms: History (knowing that a person has the condition); Coughing; Wheezing; Shortness of breath; Does anyone have asthma â€“ talk about symptoms and how it makes you feel
Treatment for an Asthma attack: Stop any vigorous activity; Keep the casualty calm and reassure; Encourage the casualty to use their blue reliever inhaler if they have it with them; Encourage the casualty to breath slowly and deeply; Do not lie casualty down, get them to sit in a position that is comfortable; If the casualty does not improve and start to get better after 5 minutes or if the casualty is becoming exhausted, get expert medical help.
First Aid Head Injury [15 mins]
Can be very serious because there could be additional internal injury to the brain
Treat any external bleed as normal, do not put any bandages around the airway.
Concussion may occur, which is when the brain has been banged against the inside of the skull, this may result in short term loss of consciousness; dizziness; nausea; memory loss; headache. All of these symptoms should fade as the casualty recovers.
Check the casualties level of responsiveness using AVPU: ALERT/VOICE is the casualty alert, eyes open and responding to questions; PAIN “ does the casualty respond to pain, ie eyes open or movement in response to being pinched; UNRESPONSIVE “ is the casualty unresponsive or unconscious.
If the casualty does not recover or level of responsiveness falls, get expert medical help. Continue to monitor the casualty for any worsening or developing symptoms.
Should you see any of the following symptoms, get expert medical help immediately: different sized pupils; pupils that do not react to light; bleeding from the ears; straw coloured fluid coming from the ears or nose; Weakness or paralysis down one side of the face or body.
Be aware of possible fractures to the skull, this may be noted by soft spongy areas, intense bruising/swelling; blood in the white of the eyes. Again expert medical help is needed immediately.
IF IN DOUBT GET HELP TO THE CASUALTY, IT IS BETTER TO BE SAFE THAN SORRY