First aid instruction on dealing with asthma and head injuries
First Aid â€“ Asthma [15 mins]
â€¢ A long term condition that causes narrowing of the airways making it difficult to breath in and out normally.
â€¢ Symptoms: History (knowing that a person has the condition); Coughing; Wheezing; Shortness of breath; Does anyone have asthma â€“ talk about symptoms and how it makes you feel
â€¢ Treatment for an Asthma attack: Stop any vigorous activity; Keep the casualty calm and reassure; Encourage the casualty to use their blue reliever inhaler if they have it with them; Encourage the casualty to breath slowly and deeply; Do not lie casualty down, get them to sit in a position that is comfortable; If the casualty does not improve and start to get better after 5 minutes or if the casualty is becoming exhausted, get expert medical help.
First Aid â€“ Head Injury [15 mins]
â€¢ Can be very serious because there could be additional internal injury to the brain
â€¢ Treat any external bleed as normal, do not put any bandages around the airway.
â€¢ Concussion may occur, which is when the brain has been banged against the inside of the skull, this may result in short term loss of consciousness; dizziness; nausea; memory loss; headache. All of these symptoms should fade as the casualty recovers.
â€¢ Check the casualties level of responsiveness using AVPU: ALERT/VOICE â€“ is the casualty alert, eyes open and responding to questions; PAIN â€“ does the casualty respond to pain, ie eyes open or movement in response to being pinched; UNRESPONSIVE â€“ is the casualty unresponsive or unconscious.
â€¢ If the casualty does not recover or level of responsiveness falls, get expert medical help. Continue to monitor the casualty for any worsening or developing symptoms.
â€¢ Should you see any of the following symptoms, get expert medical help immediately: different sized pupils; pupils that do not react to light; bleeding from the ears; straw coloured fluid coming from the ears or nose; Weakness or paralysis down one side of the face or body.
â€¢ Be aware of possible fractures to the skull, this may be noted by soft spongy areas, intense bruising/swelling; blood in the white of the eyes. Again expert medical help is needed immediately.
â€¢ IF IN DOUBT GET HELP TO THE CASUALTY, IT IS BETTER TO BE SAFE THAN SORRY