First aid instruction on Diabetes, Epilepsy, Febrile Convulsions, Meningitis, Cramp
First Aid â€“ Diabetes [20 mins]
An uncurable diagnosed condition were the casualty is unable to control the sugar levels in the blood. Normally managed by a healthy lifestyle and ballanced diet, and sometimes a drug called insulin.
â€¢ Symptoms â€“ The person will have a history of the illness; Hunger; Weekness; Sweats and muscle tremmors; Confused behaviour; Deteriorating levels of responsiveness; Can appear to be drunk
â€¢ Treatment â€“ Sit the casualty down; Offer a sweet drink or food; If the casualty improves give them more to eat and drink; Do not give them food or drink if they are not conscious; If the casualty does not improve call an ambulance.
First Aid - Epilepsy [20 mins]
â€¢ A tendency to have recurrent seizures (sometimes called fits). A seizure is caused by a sudden burst of excess electrical activity in the brain. This disruption results in the brainâ€™s messages becoming halted or mixed up. The person will have been diagnosed and may have an information card or bracelet.
â€¢ Can cause the person to fall to the floor and fit (tonic-clonic) or even just cause the person to twitch or appear in a daze/confused.
â€¢ Tonic-Clonic seizures - The person loses consciousness, the body stiffens, then falls to the ground. This is followed by jerking movements. A blue tinge around the mouth is likely. This is due to irregular breathing. After a minute or two the jerking movements should stop and consciousness may slowly return.
â€¢ Do not try to restrain them. Remove any objects that they may hurt themselves on and if possible cushion their head. Do not place anything in their mouth.
â€¢ Once the seizure has stopped, place the casualty in the recovery position, stay with them and reassure. donâ€™t try to bring them round.
â€¢ If the seizure continues for more than 5 minutes or it is the first time that the person has had a seizure or they have a further seizure without gaining consciousness, call an ambulance.
â€¢ Seizures involving altered behavior â€“ Guide the person from danger, they may not be aware of their surroundings.
â€¢ Be calm, reassure the casualty. Explain anything that they have missed or canâ€™t remember. Donâ€™t shout or do anything that may frighten the person.
First Aid â€“ Febrile Convulsion, Meningitis and Cramp [20 mins]
â€¢ Febrile convulsions can occur as a result of an illness that causes high temperature, and usually occurs in young children usually between 6 months and 6 years.
â€¢ Symptoms (not necessarily all these) â€“ Hot, red skin; Muscle twitching; fixed gaze or eyes rolling upwards; back arching with clenched fists; unconsciousness.
â€¢ The convulsions will stop when the child has cooled down; Remove excess clothing; Open windows; Use tepid water to sponge over the child; Do not immerse in cold water; Once recovered, have the child drink plenty of water; Paracetamol syrup (Calpol) should be taken in the correct dosage.
â€¢ If the child suffers a prolonged convulsion, seek medical advice.
â€¢ Meningitis is a bacterial infection and inflammation of the lining that surrounds the brain and can be fatal.
â€¢ Symptoms â€“ Generally flu-like symptoms ie sneezing, coughing, muscle aches; Also and more specifically: Seizures; Dislike of light; Septicaemia (Blood poisoning â€“ shown by a red blotchy rash, that will not fade when pushed on with a glass ie does not go white); Dislike of being handled.
â€¢ Treatment â€“ If you suspect that someone has Meningitis then they should go to the doctor or hospital as soon as possible, but not necessarily an emergency.
â€¢ Cramps are involuntary contractions of the muscle fibres, usually caused by vigorous activity or being inactive in an awkward position. Can also be caused by guarding following an injury.
â€¢ Treatment â€“ Reassurance and stretching of the muscle to relive the tension on the muscle fibres.