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Diabetes, Epilepsy, Febrile Convulsions, Meningitis, Cramp

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First aid instruction on Diabetes, Epilepsy, Febrile Convulsions, Meningitis, Cramp



First Aid – Diabetes [20 mins]
An uncurable diagnosed condition were the casualty is unable to control the sugar levels in the blood. Normally managed by a healthy lifestyle and ballanced diet, and sometimes a drug called insulin.
• Symptoms – The person will have a history of the illness; Hunger; Weekness; Sweats and muscle tremmors; Confused behaviour; Deteriorating levels of responsiveness; Can appear to be drunk
• Treatment – Sit the casualty down; Offer a sweet drink or food; If the casualty improves give them more to eat and drink; Do not give them food or drink if they are not conscious; If the casualty does not improve call an ambulance.

First Aid - Epilepsy [20 mins]
• A tendency to have recurrent seizures (sometimes called fits). A seizure is caused by a sudden burst of excess electrical activity in the brain. This disruption results in the brain’s messages becoming halted or mixed up. The person will have been diagnosed and may have an information card or bracelet.
• Can cause the person to fall to the floor and fit (tonic-clonic) or even just cause the person to twitch or appear in a daze/confused.
• Tonic-Clonic seizures - The person loses consciousness, the body stiffens, then falls to the ground. This is followed by jerking movements. A blue tinge around the mouth is likely. This is due to irregular breathing. After a minute or two the jerking movements should stop and consciousness may slowly return.
• Do not try to restrain them. Remove any objects that they may hurt themselves on and if possible cushion their head. Do not place anything in their mouth.
• Once the seizure has stopped, place the casualty in the recovery position, stay with them and reassure. don’t try to bring them round.
• If the seizure continues for more than 5 minutes or it is the first time that the person has had a seizure or they have a further seizure without gaining consciousness, call an ambulance.
• Seizures involving altered behavior – Guide the person from danger, they may not be aware of their surroundings.
• Be calm, reassure the casualty. Explain anything that they have missed or can’t remember. Don’t shout or do anything that may frighten the person.

First Aid – Febrile Convulsion, Meningitis and Cramp [20 mins]
• Febrile convulsions can occur as a result of an illness that causes high temperature, and usually occurs in young children usually between 6 months and 6 years.
• Symptoms (not necessarily all these) – Hot, red skin; Muscle twitching; fixed gaze or eyes rolling upwards; back arching with clenched fists; unconsciousness.
• The convulsions will stop when the child has cooled down; Remove excess clothing; Open windows; Use tepid water to sponge over the child; Do not immerse in cold water; Once recovered, have the child drink plenty of water; Paracetamol syrup (Calpol) should be taken in the correct dosage.
• If the child suffers a prolonged convulsion, seek medical advice.
• Meningitis is a bacterial infection and inflammation of the lining that surrounds the brain and can be fatal.
• Symptoms – Generally flu-like symptoms ie sneezing, coughing, muscle aches; Also and more specifically: Seizures; Dislike of light; Septicaemia (Blood poisoning – shown by a red blotchy rash, that will not fade when pushed on with a glass ie does not go white); Dislike of being handled.
• Treatment – If you suspect that someone has Meningitis then they should go to the doctor or hospital as soon as possible, but not necessarily an emergency.
• Cramps are involuntary contractions of the muscle fibres, usually caused by vigorous activity or being inactive in an awkward position. Can also be caused by guarding following an injury.
• Treatment – Reassurance and stretching of the muscle to relive the tension on the muscle fibres.


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